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Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common disorders of the knee involving not only cartilage surfaces but the whole joint. The "natural" progression of the disease is articular cartilage wear, stiffness, joint pain and swelling. 

Articular cartilage is the white gristle covering the end surfaces of the femur, tibia and patella and it allows for the absorption of forces, which is important for participants in high-impact activities. Normally synovial fluid lubricates these surfaces creating frictionless motion. 

It is well known that once the articular cartilage is damaged, the body does not have the capability to heal naturally. A "cascade" is instigated that progresses, at variable pace towards further deterioration of the joint over time. 

Osteoarthritis is usually graded usually on plain radiographs (Xrays) from normal to bone-on-bone. Management can be range from lifestyle modification, weight loss, physiotherapy, various injection (such as Hyaluronan or PRP) to a variety of surgical solutions tailored to the particular individual.

Anterior Knee Pain

Anterior knee pain is pain at the front of your knee. It can affect people of all ages. It is often felt as a dull aching pain behind the kneecap or in the tendon below the knee cap. The pain usually begins gradually but can sometimes occur suddenly after a fall directly onto the knee.


The pain may increase when doing activities which repeatedly bend the knee, for example going up and down stairs, squatting, jumping and running. Prolonged sitting may also aggravate your pain.

Treatment commonly involves an individually tailored physiotherapy programme but may result in surgical intervention.

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